(501) Annotated Bibliography

The following references relate to the use and importance of technology within the classroom:

Eunsook Hyun, & Davis, G. (2005). Kindergartners’ conversations in a computer-based technology classroom. Communication Education, 54(2), 118-135. doi:10.1080/03634520500213397

The research conducted using both male and female Kindergartens at work with technology, overseen by Professors of Kent State University, explores the dialogue, critical thinking and overall learning that was taking place.  The results showed that technology does have a place in the classroom and that technology gives the students the opportunity to explore, question, reflect, discover and develop new ideas.  The authors, during their research, reflect on the changing argument that progressed from whether or not technology was a necessary learning tool for younger children to how can schools, teachers and parents alike maximize technology use to benefit and sustain a child’s learning

Hofer, M., & Swan, K. (2008). Technological pedagogical content knowledge in action: A case study of a middle school digital documentary project. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 179.

Research was conducted at the elementary level (6th Grade).  The study intentionally broke down overall teaching into content, pedagogical and technological in order to analyze the effects of introducing a media project into the learning environment.  The overarching theme would suggest that technology is important but yet the complexities of using it can be slow and arduous.  The study also highlighted the desire of students to use technology as it increased their their sense of ownership, interest and motivation and gave them a greater learning experience.

Hoyer, J. (2005). Technology integration in education. International Journal of Learning, 12(6), 1-8.

The author, Hoyer,  address the absolute need for technology use within the classroom stating that technology has the ability (when used correctly) to speak to each students learning styles.  Technology is limited, however, and the author investigates some of the misconceptions and flaws that technology has.  Hoyer refers to critics of classroom technology and highlights cost, human capabilities of learning technology and the inabilities of teachers to fully grasp technology.  While these are valid points, Hoyer conducted his studies in order to build a stronger foundation for future research, and, furthermore suggests that during the six year study the overall conclusion was technology had transformed into a learning tool and has become an actual part of the learning process.

Ingram, J. K. (1994). A model curriculum to promote teacher-centered use of technology. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(4), 113-130. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.boisestate.edu/stable/1492696

The author, Ingram,  follows up on an earlier proposal which loosely links education and the success of the industrial revolution.  Ingram cites eight different authors who all agree that the current research (early 90’s) bespeaks that computers do improve learning.  The success of technology integration has been flawed by two major factors: the purchasing power to procure such technology and the knowledge teachers posses to properly use it within their classroom.  92% of Education faculty at Loyola University agreed with the latter statement when surveyed as to the skills they desired to posses.  Ingram’s overall message boldly breaks down teacher training to its core and then proposes a new strategy to ensure that new teachers are equipped with the right knowledge.

Windschitl, M., & Sahl, K. (2002). Tracing teachers’ use of technology in a laptop computer school: The interplay of teacher beliefs, social dynamics, and institutional culture. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 165-205. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.boisestate.edu/stable/3202475

Using research conducted in both Maine and New York State, the authors argue the importance of how teachers use technology to stimulate thinking within the classroom.  The article states that technology allows for a more constructivist approach through the use of Project Based Learning (PBL) and collaborative student assignments.  The study concludes that before technology can ever be introduced into the school, the community as a whole must sit and talk publicly regarding what people believe technology is, who it can be successfully integrated into the school, how it can achieve specific goals and furthermore, teachers should be approached with the consideration of what they believe technology is and how they plan on integrating it.

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